ACCA考试科目F2经验分享:ACCA F2全称是Management Accounting,这一门课程是管理会计的内容,课程总体难度不大,差异分析的部分考试可能有些难度,另外一些财务比率的计算需要掌握,为今后的学习打好基础。以下是学员整理的一些F2学习笔记供新学员参考:

  1.Target cost=target selling price–target profit=market price–desired profit margin.

  2.cost gap=estimated cost–target cost.


  ①preventing costs

  ②appraisal costs

  ③internal failure costs

  ④external failure cost

  4.Alternative costing principle:

  ①ABC(activity based costing)

  ②Target costing

  ③Life cycle


  8.Time series:


  ②seasonal variation:⑴加法模型sum to zero;⑵乘法模型sum to 4

  ③cyclical variation

  ④random variation

  9.pricipal budget factor关键预算因子:be limited the activities

  10.budget purpose:



  ③compel the plan

  ④motivative employees

  ⑤resource allocation

  11.Budget committee的功能:①coordinated②administration

  12.Budget:①function budget②master budget:1.P&L;2.B/S;3.Cash Flow

  13.Fixed Budget:不是在于固不固定,而是基于一个业务量的考虑,financail expression.

  Flexible Budget:包含了固定成本和变动成本,并且变动成本的变化是随着业务量的变化而改变。

  14.Flexible Budget的优点:

  ①recognize different cost behavior.

  ②improve quality and a comparison of like with like

  ③help managers to forecast cost,revenue and profit.

  15.Flexible Budget的缺点:



  16.Controllable cost is a“cost which can be influenced by”its budget holder.大部分的变动成本是可控的,non-controllable cost为inflation.

  17.Budget Behavior:

  ①participate approach

  ②imposed budget


  ①ignore profitability

  ②the time value of money is ignored




  ①easy to calculate

  ②widely use

  ③minimize the effect of the risk and help liqidity


  20.(1+real interst rate)*(1+inflation rate)=(1+nominal interest rate)

  21.NPV=present value of future net cash flow–present value of initial cost




  25.IRR:(based on cash flow analysis)

  ①IRR>cost of capital,NPV>0,worth taking


  26.ARR=average profit/average investment(ARR是基于profit)

  Average investment=(initial investment–residual value)/2

  27.type of standard:

  ①basic standard

  ②current standard

  ③ideal standard

  ④attainable standard


  1.Material Variance

  ⑴total material variance=standard cost–actual cost

  ⑵material price variance=(standard price–actual price)*actual quantity

  ⑶material usage variance=(standard usage of actual output-actual usage)*standard price.

  2.Direct Labor Variance

  ⑴standard pay–actual pay

  ⑵Labor rate variances=(standard rate–actual rate)*actual hrs of actual output

  ⑶Labor efficiency variances=(standard hrs of actual output–actual hrs)*standard rate

  3.Variable production overhead variances

  ⑴Total variable O.H.variance=standard cost–actual cost

  ⑵Variable O.H.expenditure variance=(standard rate–actual rate)*actual hrs

  ⑶Variable O.H.efficiency variance=(standard hrs of actual output–actual hrs)*standard rate

  4.Fixed O.H.expenditure variance

  ⑴Fixed O.H.Expenditure variance=budget expenditure–actual expenditure

  ⑵Fixed O.H.volume=(actual output-budgeted volume)*standard hrs per unit*standard rate per hr.

  ⑶Capacity variance=(actual hrs worked–budgeted hrs worked)*standard rate per hr

  ⑷Efficiency variance=(standard hrs worked for actual output–actual hrs worked)*standard rate per hr⑴+⑵:Fixed variance=fixed O.H.absorbed–actual expenditure

  5.Sales variance

  ⑴Sales price variances=(actual price–budget price)*actual sales units

  ⑵Sales volume variances=(actual sales units–budget sales units)*standard profit per unit


  ⑶Sales volume variances=(actual sales units–budget sales units)*standard CPU(marginal costing)

  6.Idle time variances

  Idle time variance=(expected idle time–actual idle time)*adjusted hr rate

  29.The elements of a mission statement including:



  ③Policies and standards of behavior

  ④Values and culture

  30.A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitivesuccess.

  31.Profitability ratios

  ①Return on capital employed(ROCE)

  =profit before interest and tax/(shareholders’funds+long-term liabilities)×100%

  ②Return on equity(ROE)=profit after tax/shareholders’funds×100%

  ③Asset turnover=sales/capital employed×100%

  =sales/(shareholders’funds+long-term liabilities)×100%

  ④Profit margin=profit before interest and tax/sales×100%

  Profit margin×asset turnover=ROCE

  32.Debt and gearing ratios

  ①Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities/total equity×100%

  ②Interest cover=PBIT/Interest×100%

  33.Liquidity ratios

  ①Current ratio=current assets/current liabilities

  ②Quick ratio(acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory/current liabilities

  34.Working capital ratios

  ①Inventory days=average inventory*365/cost of sales

  ②Receivables days=average trade receivables*365/sales

  ③Payables days=average trade payables*365/cost of sales(or purchases)

  35.Non-financial performance measures

  Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance.

  ①Market share





  ⑥Social aspects

  36.The balanced scorecard:

  ①financial perspective②external perspective

  ③customer perspective④learning and innovation perspective


  ①Internal benchmarking

  ②Competitive benchmarking

  ③Functional benchmarking

  ④Strategic benchmarking

  38.Value analysis is a planned,scientific approach to cost reduction,which reviews the material composition of a product and the product's design so that modifications and improvements can be made which do not reduce the value of the product to the customer or user.

  39.Four aspects of'value'should be considered:

  ①Cost value

  ②Exchange value

  ③Utility value

  ④Esteem value

  40.ROI=PBIT/capital employed*100%

  Widely used and accepted;As a relative measure it enables comparisons to be made with divisions or companies of different sizes.

  41.RI=PBIT-Imputed interest*capital employed.

  Possible to use different rates of interest for different types of assets;Cost of finance is beingconsidered.