ACCA F2《管理会计》考试复习重点整理:
  1.Target cost=target selling price–target profit=market price–desired profit margin.
  2.cost gap=estimated cost–target cost.
  preventing costs
  appraisal costs
  internal failure costs
  external failure cost
  4.Alternative costing principle:
  ABC(activity based costing)
  Target costing
  Life cycle
  6.Paashe price index
  8.Time series:
  seasonal variation:⑴加法模型sum to zero;⑵乘法模型sum to 4
  cyclical variation
  random variation
  9.pricipal budget factor关键预算因子:be limited the activities
  10.budget purpose:
  compel the plan
  motivative employees
  resource allocation
  11.Budget committee的功能:①coordinated ②administration
  12.Budget:①function budget ②master budget:1.P&L;2.B/S;3.Cash Flow
  13.Fixed Budget:不是在于固不固定,而是基于一个业务量的考虑,financail expression.Flexible Budget:包含了固定成本和变动成本,并且变动成本的变化是随着业务量的变化而改变。
  14.Flexible Budget的优点:
  recognize different cost behavior.
  improve quality and a comparison of like with like
  help managers to forecast cost,revenue and profit.
  15.Flexible Budget的缺点:
  16.Controllable cost is a“cost which can be influenced by”its budget holder.大部分的变动成本是可控的,non-controllable cost为inflation.
  17.Budget Behavior:
  participate approach
  imposed budget
  ignore profitability
  the time value of money is ignored
  easy to calculate
  widely use
  minimize the effect of the risk and help liqidity
  20.(1+real interst rate)*(1+inflation rate)=(1+nominal interest rate)
  21.NPV=present value of future net cash flow–present value of initial cost
  25.IRR:(based on cash flow analysis)
  IRR>cost of capital,NPV>0,worth taking
  IRR<cost of capital,NPV<0,not worthwhile.
  26.ARR=average profit/average investment(ARR是基于profit)
  Average investment=(initial investment–residual value)/2
  27.type of standard:
  basic standard
  current standard
  ideal standard
  attainable standard
  1.Material Variance
  ⑴total material variance=standard cost–actual cost
  ⑵material price variance=(standard price–actual price)*actual quantity
  ⑶material usage variance=(standard usage of actual output-actual usage)*standard price.
  2.Direct Labor Variance
  ⑴standard pay–actual pay
  ⑵Labor rate variances=(standard rate–actual rate)*actual hrs of actual output
  ⑶Labor efficiency variances=(standard hrs of actual output–actual hrs)*standard rate
  3.Variable production overhead variances
  ⑴Total variable O.H.variance=standard cost–actual cost
  ⑵Variable O.H.expenditure variance=(standard rate–actual rate)*actual hrs
  ⑶Variable O.H.efficiency variance=(standard hrs of actual output–actual hrs)*standard rate
  4.Fixed O.H.expenditure variance
  Fixed O.H.Expenditure variance=budget expenditure–actual expenditure
  Fixed O.H.volume=(actual output-budgeted volume)*standard hrs per unit*standard rate per hr.
  Capacity variance=(actual hrs worked–budgeted hrs worked)*standard rate per hr
  Efficiency variance=(standard hrs worked for actual output–actual hrs worked)*standard rate per hr
  ⑴+⑵:Fixed variance=fixed O.H.absorbed–actual expenditure
  5.Sales variance
  Sales price variances=(actual price–budget price)*actual sales units
  Sales volume variances=(actual sales units–budget sales units)*standard profit per unit(absorption)
  Sales volume variances=(actual sales units–budget sales units)*standard CPU(marginal costing)
  6.Idle time variances
  Idle time variance=(expected idle time–actual idle time)*adjusted hr rate
  29.The elements of a mission statement including:
  Policies and standards of behavior
  Values and culture
  30.A critical success factor is a performance requirement that is fundamental to competitive success.
  31.Profitability ratios
  Return on capital employed(ROCE)=profit before interest and tax/(shareholders’funds+long-term liabilities)×100%
  Return on equity(ROE)=profit after tax/shareholders’funds×100%
  Asset turnover=sales/capital employed×100%=sales/(shareholders’funds+long-term liabilities)×100%
  Profit margin=profit before interest and tax/sales×100%
  Profit margin×asset turnover=ROCE
  32.Debt and gearing ratios
  Debt-to-equity ratio=long-term liabilities/total equity×100%
  Interest cover=PBIT/Interest×100%
  33.Liquidity ratios
  Current ratio=current assets/current liabilities
  Quick ratio(acid test ratio)=current assets minus inventory/current liabilities
  34.Working capital ratios
  Inventory days=average inventory*365/cost of sales
  Receivables days=average trade receivables*365/sales
  Payables days=average trade payables*365/cost of sales(or purchases)
  35.Non-financial performance measures
  Non-financial performance measures are considered to be leading indicators of financial performance.
  1 Market share
  Social aspects
  36.The balanced scorecard:
  financial perspective
  external perspective
  customer perspective
  learning and innovation perspective
  Internal benchmarking
  Competitive benchmarking
  Functional benchmarking
  Strategic benchmarking
  38.Value analysis is a planned,scientific approach to cost reduction,which reviews the material composition of a product and the product's design so that modifications and improvements can be made which do not reduce the value of the product to the customer or user.
  39.Four aspects of'value'should be considered:
  Cost value
  Exchange value
  Utility value
  Esteem value
  40.ROI=PBIT/capital employed*100%
  Widely used and accepted;As a relative measure it enables comparisons to be made with divisions or companies of different sizes.
  41.RI=PBIT-Imputed interest*capital employed.
  Possible to use different rates of interest for different types of assets;Cost of finance is being considered.